All researchers using copyrighted materials, including printed documents, graphics, photography, artwork, audio, video, and film, must abide by U.S. copyright law, which makes allowances for fair use.
To determine whether the intended use can be considered "fair" or not, use the fair use analysis tools. Note that the desired use might be "fair" when applied to an unpublished paper, thesis, or dissertation and submitted as a course or degree requirement, but may not be "fair" when the work is published as an article or book. For more details, see the following:
Copyright Law and Graduate Research by Kenneth Crews.
Crews's guide helps "graduate students and advisors understand legal rights and duties at an early stage [of writing theses and dissertations], before the legal issues can become serious and frustrating. This manual should help researchers identify when they need copyright clearances and show how to obtain them. It should also help graduate students protect their own copyrights" (preface).
Content in this page was used or adapted with permission from one or more institutions. Please see acknowledgements.